1997年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第二篇】(1997年考研英语阅读真题解析)

1997年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第二篇】(1997年考研英语阅读真题解析)缩略图

passage2注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。? ? ? ??a report consistently brought back by visitors to the us is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most americans were to them.【第15题】?to be fair, this observation is also frequently made of canada and canadians, and should best be considered north american. there are, of course, exceptions. small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the us. yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.
? ? ? ? for a long period of time and in many parts of the country,a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise?dull existence. dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from onel another. strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.【第17题】
? ? ? ? the harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. it was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. it reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didnt take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. and someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.
? ? ? ? ?today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the us【第18题】, especially in the smaller cities and towns awayfrom the busy tourist trails.such observations reported by visitors to the us are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. the casual friendliness of many americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
? ? ? ? as is true of any developed society, in america a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships.【第16题】 and, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. visitors who fail to s language and culture. it takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. yet, being friendly is a virtue that many americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
一、文章结构分析
? ? ? 这是一篇介绍并分析美国人友善好客这一文化现象的文章。本文从结构上讲,一个比较明显的特点是比较论证手法,第二段和第三段从历史角度探讨美国人友好的成因,而第四段对现在美国人的友好进行描述。第二个特点是主题句并不总在段落的开始部分(如本文第一段和第四段),因此考生在寻找主题句时需要注意yet等转折连词的使用,这些词后面引导的句子往往才是主题句所在。
? ? ?第一段:指出美国人友好、礼貌、乐于助人的现象,最后一句交待了文章的写作目的,即这种现象值得评论。
? ? ?第二段、第三段:从历史角度探讨产生这一现象的原因:一是旅行者因为打破了当地的沉闷而受欢迎;二是拓荒地区的残酷现实。该部分主要采用说理论证手法。
? ? ?第四段:第二句为主题句,说明这一现象在今日的美国仍然盛行,该段使用了引证法。
? ? ?最后第五段:从文化的角度探讨整个美国民族表现出来的友善好客现象。

15.in the eyes of visitors from the outside world.
[a]rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the us
[b]small-minded officials deserve a serious comment
[c]canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors
[d]most americans are ready to offer help
15.在外来的参观者的眼里,
[a]粗鲁的出租车司机在美国很罕见
[b]心胸狭窄的官员应该被认真评论
[c]加拿大人不如邻国人民友善
[d]大多数美国人乐于助人

16.it could be inferred from the last paragraph that.
[a] culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship
[b]courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated
[c]various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends
[d]social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions
16.从文章最后一段可以推出
[a]文化影响社会关系
[b]礼貌的习惯和个人兴趣互相影响
[c]各种美德仅仅表现在朋友关系
[d]社会关系等于一系列复杂的文化习俗

17.families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers.
[a]to improve their hard life
[b]in view of their long-distance travel
[c]to add some flavor to their own daily life
[d]out of a charitable impulse
17.住在边远地区的家庭过去常常款待旅游者是
[a]为了改善艰苦的生活
[b]考虑到他们的长途跋涉
[c]为自己的日常生活增添情趣
[d]出于行善的一时冲动

18.the tradition of hospitality to strangers.
[a]tends to be superficial and artificial
[b] is generally well kept up in the united states
[c] is always understood properly
[d]
1997年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第二篇】(1997年考研英语阅读真题解析)插图
has something to do with the busy tourist trails
18.这种对陌生人友善的传统
[a]往往是表面的、虚伪的
[b]一般来说,在美国得以广泛地保持
[c]总是能够被正确理解
[d]与一些旅游热线有关
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇
(1)artificial(a.)人工的,人造的;人为的,矫揉造作的
(2)charitable(a.)仁爱的,慈善的;charity(n.)慈善团体,仁慈,施舍
(3)courteous(a.)礼貌的,殷勤的;courtesy(n.)谦恭有礼,有礼貌的举止或言辞
(4)frontier(n.)国境,边境;边远地区,边疆
(5)harsh(a.)恶劣的,粗糙的,难听的,严酷的
(6)hospitality(n.)好客,殷勤,款待;hospitable(a.)好客的,殷勤的
(7)impulse(n.)冲动,驱使,推动,刺激;(v.)推动
(8)small-minded(a.)心胸狭隘的
(9)specialize(v.)(in)专门从事
(10)superficial(a.)表面的,肤浅的,浅薄的

三、阅读答案:d a c b
四、全文翻译:
? ? ? ?去过美国的人回来总是说大多数美国人对他们是多么友善、好客、乐于助人。公正的说,人们对加拿人也经常作出有这样的评论,因而,这应当被认为是北美的普遍现象。当然也有例外。在美国,心胸狭隘的官员,举止粗鲁的招待和毫无礼貌的出租车司机也并非罕见。尽管有不如人意的地方,但因为热情好客是人们常常作出的评论,所以值得讨论一番。(长难句①)
? ? ? ?过去很长一段时间,在美国很多地方,旅行者的到来总是颇受观迎,因为他们打破了当地居民沉闷单调的生活。无聊、孤独是一般相互之间距离很远的家庭普遍存在的问题。陌生人和旅行者不仅转折了人们的注意力,他们还带来了外面世界的消息。
? ? ? ?拓荒地区的严酷生活现实也促成了这一好客的传统的形成。单独旅行时,如果挨饿、受伤或生病,通常只能向最近的小屋或村落求助。对旅行者来说,这不是一个选择的问题;而对当地居民来说也,这也并非是行善的一时冲动。(佳句①)它反映了日常生活的严酷现实:如果你不收留陌生人,那他便无处求助了。请记住,有一天你也可能处于相同的境遇。
? ? ? ?如今,有了很多的慈善组织专门 助疲惫的旅行者。不过,热情接待陌生人的传统在美国仍然很盛行,尤其是在远离旅游热线的小城镇。“我只是路过,和这个美国人聊了聊。很快,他就请我到他家吃饭——这真令人惊奇。”去过美国的旅客的这种谈论很普遍,但并非都能被正确理解。很多美国人不经意表现的友好不应被看作是表面或虚假的应酬,而应该看成是文化传统的历史发展结果。(佳句②)
? ? ? ?同任何发达国家一样,一系列复杂的文化符号、设想和习俗构成了美国所有社会关系的基础。(长难句②)当然,会讲一种语言并不意味着就理解其社会和其文化模式。不能正确“诠释”文化含义的旅行者往往得出错误的结论。例如,美国人所说的“朋友”一词,其文化含义可能与旅行者语言和文化中的“朋友”大相径庭。要想正确区分礼貌是出于文化习俗还是个人兴趣,单凭一次公共汽车上的邂逅是远远不够的。(长难句③)不过,友好是很多美国人推崇的美德,也是希望从邻居和陌生人那得到的。

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